Prevalence and incidence of pediatric autoimmune encephalitis in Canada

The objective of this component of the study is to establish the prevalence and incidence of childhood-onset autoimmune encephalitis (AE) in Canada. Currently, there is no published epidemiology data on pediatric-onset AE in Canada, and epidemiological data gathered in this study will help raise awareness among physicians so that appropriate clinical investigations and diagnosis can be made early in the disease course to increase the likelihood of better clinical outcomes.

Characterization of gene expression profiles in pediatric neuroinflammatory disorders

The second component of the study is a longitudinal investigation of signature gene expression profiles that distinguish children with pediatric AE from healthy children. The study involves the analysis of blood samples, and brain MRI scans to help identify potential disease biomarkers and develop new therapies.

Retrospective evaluation of gene expression in pediatric autoimmune encephalitis brain (Retrospective Analysis of Biological Samples)

A retrospective evaluation of brain tissue previously obtained for clinical diagnostic purposes will allow for further investigation of gene expression patterns during active neuroinflammation and during a recovering phase in pediatric AE.

For more information and participation, please contact Olivia Lau.


Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of Childhood (ANEC)

Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of Childhood (ANEC) is a rare disorder in paediatrics that has significant morbidity and mortality. ANEC is often seen as a post-viral inflammatory process that leads to progressive deterioration of neurological status. With more awareness of ANEC, patients are getting more prompt treatment. Previous descriptions in the literature have shown significant mortality and morbidity in patients with ANEC. In this study, we will describe interventions and long-term outcomes in this cohort.

Autoimmune Encephalitis

The diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis is considered when children present with explosive onset epilepsy and behavioural changes with other supporting evidence for a neuroinflammatory etiology. This observational study is focused on describing natural history and interventions for this cohort of patients.